by H. J. Sharp
When a number of individual elements began to be recognised by the early chemists, it began also to be noticed that in some cases there seemed to be a recurrence of properties. As more elements were discovered and their properties determined, it was confirmed that this recurrence did occur and in fact the elements could be arranged in a periodic table. It was eventually realised that the recurrence of properties was due to the sub-atomic structure and in particular, using the simple model of the atom as being like a miniature Solar System, because the electrons could only be arranged in a limited series of orbits or shells. Thus the innermost shell contained electrons of a particular energy level and could only accommodate a maximum of two electrons. If more than two electrons were present, then the next eight were accommodated in a higher energy shell of greater radius. These shells relate to the fact already noted that the electrons cannot occupy any orbit but are limited by the quantum theory to certain specific orbits corresponding to definite levels of energy.
It is found that the innermost shell, the Is shell, is able to accommodate two electrons as a maximum. Thus the element hydrogen which has one electron and the element helium which has two electrons are all that is possible if the Is shell only is utilised. Elements containing three up to ten orbiting electrons have the first two in the inner Is shell and the remaining ones in a new larger diameter shell, divided into two sub shells, 2s and 2p. These second two sub shells are able to accommodate up to a maximum of eight electrons. If more are present then they have to occupy a further outer shell, which consists of three sub shells, 3s, 3p, and 3d. In this way up to a further eight electrons can be accommodated. The pattern continues to unfold to include the 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f shells; the 5s, 5p, 5d, and 5f shells; the 6s, 6p, 6d, and 6f shells, and finally the 7s shell. This is shown in Figure 8.
The interesting thing that effects the element's properties is that once a shell has its full compliment of electrons, it is satisfied and becomes as they say, inert, elements having no combining power and so no compounds in the usual sense. Thus we have the recurring series of inert gases, starting with helium with a completed Is shell, then neon with a completed Is, 2s, and 2p shells, argon with completed is, 2s, 3s, and 3p shells, and so on to include krypton, xenon and radon.
if we consider the periodic table of the elements in relation to the Law of Seven, the Octave, we see that the basis division of the table centres on the six basic inert gas core structures each of which is responsible for a series of elements. These six series or periods together with hydrogen make up seven notes of the Octave. Thus the Octave starts with hydrogen as the first Do. Then we have the helium series as Si, the Neon series as La, the Argon series as Sol, the krypton series as Fa. At this stage in the descending Octave we come to the Mi-Fa discontinuity, the Harnel-Aoot. This is bridged by the Rare Earth series of elements, from lanthanum to leutecium, which form part of the xenon series represented by the note Mi. Finally there is the radon series as Re, with the table rounded off by a lower Do which is the beginning of another Octave of which we know nothing.
Continuing to relate the structure of the elements to the Octave we see some interesting further relationships. To begin with we see hydrogen and helium in a class of their own in which no Octave structure is apparent. Hydrogen and helium were the first elements formed after the Big Bang and where formed in the expanding cloud of radiant energy. The other elements were formed in the Stars as a result of nuclear reactions. The helium nucleus, however, forms the core for all subsequent atoms and so we can consider it as the upper Do of a series of sub Octaves, starting the second period in the table of the elements.
Considering it as the upper Do of the Octave of the second period, this period can be seen as a descending Octave with lithium as the note Si, beryllium as La, boron as Sol, and-carbon as Fa. Then we come to the Harnel-Aoot between Fa and Mi were two quantum jumps are necessary instead of the single jumps between the other elements. So this is a place where a shock is required, a resonance in order to bridge the gap. In relation to this nitrogen is found to exhibit two principle valencies of5 and 3. It can combine with elements that are five short of eight, such as in nitric acid, HNO , or with a group having three electrons surplus, such as in ammonia, NH . So it as it where offers a hand in either direction. The three elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, were used by the alchemists to represent the three forces in the triads of the Law of Three. Thus carbon with its four bonds forms the basis of so many compounds, was taken as typifying active force. Oxygen, ready to combine with almost every other element but never the primary element itself, was considered as typifying the passive force. Nitrogen with its ability to look both ways, typifies the third or relating or enabling force.
The second period is completed with fluorine which strikes the note Re. In a similar fashion, the remaining four periods can be related to their own sub Octaves. Complications do come in because of a number of factors. For example, the electrons in the outermost orbitals in some cases penetrate some of the inner orbitals and this alters the energy patterns. Also as the nucleus of the atoms becomes larger it exerts a greater force of attraction and so the overall effective size of the atoms do not increase in proportion to their atomic number. In the more complex elements also it is not only the outermost shells that are progressively filled. This in itself relates to energy levels due to interpenetrating orbitals. All this means that with the later periods of the elements, we see not only the sub Octaves developing, but inner octaves of some complexity also being involved. In spite of these complexities the overall pattern is of the table of the elements developing in accordance with a series of descending Octaves in accordance with the Law of Seven.
A further factor that is apparent is the way in which with each period, because of the inert gas core that makes up its main structure, and the outer electrons in the process of being added as the period unfolds, we have a situation that resembles something we will deal with later, namely the idea of the human being made up of Essence that one is born with and which determines our essential character, and our Personality which we have acquired and which is therefore not really our own, but which can be either used by us appropriately, or which can use us and so lead to the demise of Essence. A essential part of our development is for us to quieten Personality so that it becomes passive. Our Essence is then no longer smothered by it, and can begin to be fed with third being food, the food of psychological impressions arising from our life experiences. Essence then begins to quicken and grow. This in my view is the true meaning of the Virgin Birth. So we see the same pattern of relationships in the structure of the elements and in our own psychological structure. The periodic structure of the elements is summarised in the table, Sub Atomic Structure and the Octave. (Figure 9).
Rodney Collin (93) points out what is perhaps a more significant aspect of the table of the elements. The first period is occupied alone by hydrogen which has an affinity with the Sun and is the basis of all the other elements. Hydrogen thus symbolises Spirit in the elements. Life as we know it also depends upon what is called the "hydrogen ion concentration" or pH. Unless the pH of the body fluids and cell contents are maintained at very precisely controlled levels, life is not possible.
The second period contains the elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which with hydrogen are the basis of the multitude of molecules of organic life.
The third period contains sodium and chlorine, which as their compound salt, are responsible for maintaining the osmotic pressures upon which the form and rigidity of cellular structures are dependent. It also contains phosphorus and sulphur which are necessary for the existence of a nervous system.
The fourth period contains potassium, calcium, iron and copper which play a large part in the constitution of the blood and chlorophyll and the maintenance of the circulation. Iron and copper are essential for the combustion of air and respiration. Similarly calcium together with magnesium and phosphorus of the previous period are responsible for the skeletal structure.
The fifth period contains all those elements that are unassimilable by life, with the one exception of iodine which is essential for thyroid function. Thus all the elements that are necessary for the human organism are contained in the first five periods and in particular the elements in the series from carbon to copper, with iodine and hydrogen as the outriders as it where.
The elements in the sixth period appear to have no place in life, while those in the seventh period would appear to have no place on Earth at all and are basically unstable
As we have said, in the case of the inert gases, they have no combining power. All the other elements have the possibility of combination. The way in which such combination can take place is based on their imperfections, missing electrons in the outer orbitals or shells. These imperfections give rise to three basic forms of bonding.
In the simplest, an element with one or two electrons missing from an outer orbital can combine with an element in which the outer orbital contains only six or seven electrons. In this way a complete set of eight is formed, again giving the perfection of the inert gas structure. Thus as examples we can take common salt which is formed when a sodium having a single electron in its outermost 3s orbital meets a chlorine atom which has seven electrons in its outermost 3s and 3p orbitals. Alternatively we can take as an example magnesium chloride which is formed when a single magnesium atom which has two electrons in its outermost 3s orbitals meets two chlorine atoms each with seven electrons in their outermost orbitals. Again magnesium will combine with one atom of oxygen, the two outer electrons of the magnesium forming a stable eight with the six outer electrons of the oxygen atom.
The complete octet can be achieved also by a sharing of electrons.This produces what is called a co-valent bond. An example is the combination of oxygen with sulphur to form sulphur dioxide. In this case the four outermost 3p electrons of the sulphur atom are shared, two to each of the oxygen atoms to add to its six outer electrons in the 2s and 2p orbitals Another example of such co-valent bonding is carbon. The four valency electrons of the carbon atom are highly directional being directed to the apices of a regular tetrahedron. They can combine with four chlorine atoms to give each a stable group of eight and at the same time giving the carbon atom a stable group of eight; thus we have carbon tetrachloride. Perhaps more important is the possibility of the bonding of one carbon atom with another so as to give chain structures and ring structures which are all highly directional. Thus we have the possibility of in effect "structural organic chemistry" the structures being in effect similar to the lattice steel work in building construction. This is the basis of organic chemistry and the construction of all the many complex materials of living organisms. The co-valent bond in effect is a symbiotic relationship, a sharing and interaction. We will come across many other examples of such symbiotic relationships; the possible interaction of the personal conscious mind with the personal unconscious mind; the fact that we now know that the nucleate cell which is the basis of all the multicellular organisms, is the result of the combination of an original non-nucleate cell with an invading bacterium. More details of this will be given later.
A third form of bonding is the metallic bond. This is based on a kind of atmosphere of valency electrons shared between the atoms ofa metallic element in the mass. It is responsible for one form of electric and thermal conductivity. It is of less concern to us as it is not relevant to organic materials.
The most important concept that emerges from the above consideration of the bonding of the elements is that as a result of the imperfections, a multitudinous variation in combining power is allowed so giving rise to the possibility of an almost infinite number of chemical compounds. The whole situation gives the impression of a higher intelligence that has arranged that under the laws imposed at the level of the creation of the elements, their sub atomic structure has been so devised that such combinations are possible. J. H. Reyner deals with this well (94).
More than this it could be said that at the level of the elements they have their own level of intelligence which arranges their inevitable combination in specific ways. This action of the elements giving rise to the infinite variety of compounds and their consequent properties or behaviour patterns can be said to be mechanical intelligence which is immutable but unconscious. The idea that at the level of the elements there is intelligence but no consciousness is fundamental to our subsequent arguments. The intelligence of the elements and their consequent combining power represents the culmination of the Ray of Creation, in which as the various lower and lower levels unfold, each further from the Absolute, they are subject to greater numbers of laws and so are less and less conscious, until at the level of the elements we have no consciousness. This does not mean that we have no intelligence. We have to carefully define what we mean by intelligence. It has already been referred to at page 41 and later under the heading of The Octave of Intelligence in Chapter 7. It is only when due to the combination of the elements into molecules of increasing complexity including the genetic material that is able to replicate itself and direct its incorporation into cellular organisms and ever more complex structures, that eventually consciousness arises again and the return journey begins.
Now we need to consider the way the elements give rise to the Molecular World which in turn gives rise to the Cellular World. Meanwhile let us hold the thought that the combining power of the elements is based on their imperfections, just as our relationships with others is based on our imperfections, for the perfect need nothing and can relate to no one.
(93) The Theory of Celestial Influence. Rodney Collin. Shambala. Boulder & London. 1984.
(94) The Universe of Relationships. J. S. Reyner. Vincent Stuart. 1960.
From : My End is My Beginning, H. J. Sharp, © 2003
The Endless Search © 2004 - 2005 Ian C. MacFarlane